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Ershov, Bogdan; Ashmarov, Igor (2018), METHODOLOGY OF HISTORICAL AND ECONOMIC RESEARCH: A RETROSPECTIVE VIEW, v4, UC Press Dash, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.17916/P6F59M



This data set represents an analysis of historical and economic methods of production management in modern Russia. The need to generalize the accumulated theoretical and empirical material, to find new approaches to the evaluation of modern production, to study both general and specific laws of the process of transforming the structure of social production is shown. The features of this process in countries with different levels of economic development are studied. Particular attention is paid to the dynamics of social production in the postindustrial era, where the development of information and communication technologies comes to the fore.



The methodological basis of the study was the methods of logical and statistical analysis, mapping of graphic data, a method of comparing scales and comparing the analyzed phenomena and processes in the economic reality. Using a set of these methods of scientific knowledge made it possible to ensure the reliability of analysis and synthesis results obtained in the process of data analysis and to formulate a number of author's conclusions applicable in theory and practice. The study was conducted using tools and methods of institutional and systemic approaches.

Usage Notes


Course subject and its meaning. Elements of the history of the economy as a science. Periodization of the history of the economy. Functions of the history of the economy. Methods of the history of the economy. Early branches of human economic activity and division of labour. The main features of the primitive communal system. Origin of craft. The appearance of metal tools. Decomposition of the primitive communal system. Prerequisites for the emergence of socio-economic inequalities in primitive society. General characteristics of the slave-owning mode of production. The economy of the countries of the Ancient East. Development of agriculture, crafts and trade. Characteristic features of ancient slavery. The economy of ancient Greek city-states. Features of the economic development of ancient Rome.


General characteristics of the feudal mode of production. Basic principles of feudalism. Stages of development of feudalism. Natural economy under feudalism. Economy of the Frankish state. Agriculture of Western Europe and its features in France, Germany and England. Feudal cities as centers of craft and trading activities. Shop organization of production. The role of trade in the birth of early capitalist relations. Changes in the agricultural economy of Kievan Rus. Development of crafts. The origin of commodity-money relations. Foreign trade relations of Kievan Rus. The economy of independent large principalities. Influence of the Mongol-Tatar invasion on the economic development of the Russian lands. The development of the north-eastern lands and the growth of cities. Restoration and development of Russian craft. The basic forms of feudal landownership. The economy of the feudal fiefdom. Socio-economic reasons for the unification of Russian lands. Formation of a local land tenure system. The main features of the feudal landlord economy. Turning cities into crafts and trade centres. The transformation of craft into small-scale production. The appearance of manufactories, their types. The role of the state in the creation of manufactories. Structure of foreign trade relations of the state. The policy of mercantilism. Essence of economic reforms of



Industrial development of England. Features of capitalist accumulation. Freedom of entrepreneurship. Leadership of England in world industry and trade. The transition from manufactory to factory production. Creation of the first machines. Railway construction. Structure of the English industry. Socio-economic consequences of the industrial revolution. Growth in the proportion of urban population. The formation of farm capitalist farms in the countryside. The policy of free trade in international trade. London as a world financial center. Features of the industrial revolution in France and its lag behind England. The industrial and agrarian nature of the economy. Small-scale peasant production. Slow development of capitalism in agriculture. Types of colonial farming in North America. The agrarian nature of the economy. Organization of centralized manufactories. Contradictions between the North American colonies and England. The creation of the United States and the establishment of capitalist economic relations. American way of development of capitalism in agriculture. The rapid completion of the industrial revolution. Economic causes and consequences of the Civil War in the United States. A significant rise in the American economy.


The beginning of the transition to large-scale machine production. Industrial revolution in Russia and its features. Trade, finance and credit. The crisis of serfdom. Increasing the agricultural marketability. The origin of capitalist relations in agriculture. Basic provisions and significance of the reform of 1861. Dissemination of share capital. The main industrial regions of the country. Railway construction. Inflow of foreign capital. The predominant role of agriculture. Stratification of the peasantry and the formation of a market for hired labor. The development of stationary trade and commodity exchanges. Growth in foreign trade turnover. Broad development of commercial banks. Reforms. Features of imperialism in. The emergence of monopolistic associations in industry. The influence of the city revolution on the Russian economy. Agrarian reform and its importance. The growth of banking monopolies and their association with industrial monopolies. Financial capital. Development of trade. The impact of World War I on the Russian economy. Change management industry. Military-industrial policy. System of special meetings. The food crisis. Violation of the functioning of the monetary system. The overthrow of tsarism and the economic policy of the provisional government. Crisis state of the economy. The economic backwardness of Germany. The germ of German industry in the villages. Prussian way of development of capitalism in agriculture. Industrial revolution in Germany. Accelerated creation of a military-industrial base. Features of the structure of foreign trade in Germany. Features of the origin of capitalism in Japan. Inclusion of Japan in the world economic system. The growth of industry and trade. Zaibatsu. Paternalism. State support of economic development.


Technological progress of the last third of the XIX century. The emergence of new industries and the enlargement of industrial production. Establishment of joint-stock companies. Export of capital. Change in the industrial structure of industry. The emergence of new industries. Monopolization of the economies of the leading capitalist countries. Creation of industrial and banking monopolies. Education of financial capital. Cartels and syndicates as the main form of monopolization of the economy. Formation of the world market. Types of colonial farming. Features of immigrant colonies. Change in the system of exploitation of colonies. Monocultural nature of the economy. The birth of the national commercial bourgeoisie in the colonies and dependent countries.


Impact of the First World War on the economy of leading foreign states. Economic growth in the US after the First World War. Formation of the "consumer society". Causes of the economic crisis. The period of the Great Depression in the United States. Falling production volumes. The ruin of banks, industrial companies and farms. "New Deal" by F. Roosevelt and his results. Keynesianism. Banking and financial reform. Public Works. Measures to combat overproduction of agricultural products. Change in the role of the state in the economy. Economic chaos in Germany after the First World War. Hyperinflation. The Dawes Plan. Stabilization of the German economy. Economic development of Germany in the years of the Weimar Republic. The impact of the global economic crisis on the German economy. Establishment of the fascist dictatorship. Militarization of the economy. Development of the military industry. Intervention of the state in the economy. Forced syndication. Expansion of the public sector of the economy. Preparing for war.


Socio-economic transformation of the Bolsheviks. Work control. Nationalization of industry and banks. Establishment of a monopoly of foreign trade. The agrarian policy of the Soviet government. The economy of the country during the civil war. Politics of War Communism. The GOELRO plan. Economics of the USSR during the NEP. Replacement of the surplus-deposit for the tax. Concessions. Monetary reform. Concentration of NEP. Forcing the pace of industrialization. Collectivization. Soviet economy during the first five-year plans. The economy of the country during the Great Patriotic War and in the period of post-war reconstruction. Economic development in the 60's and 80's. Economic reforms of the years. Results of the post-October development of the economy. Crisis of the administrative-command system. Slowdown in the growth rates of key economic indicators.


Economic results of the Second World War. US leadership in the global economy. Marshall Plan. Strengthening state regulation of the economy. Scientific and technological revolution (STR) and structural changes in the economy of foreign countries. The economic policy of Charles de Gaulle in France. Social market economy and economic reforms of L. Erhard in Germany. Postwar industrial development of Japan. General regularities of the modern economy of foreign countries. Structural changes. A new quality of education and qualification of the workforce. The concept of "human relations". Reasons for changing the model of state regulation. Strengthening market principles in the economy. "Reaganomics" and its results. Economic reforms of the government of M. Thatcher. Features of economic development of Japan. New industrial countries. Growth of interdependence of national economies. Formation of a single world market. International economic integration.


The collapse of the USSR. Necessity of fundamental social and economic transformations. Economic reform in the conditions of the formation of an independent state - the Russian Federation. Liberalization of prices. Inflation. Privatization. Formation of diverse forms of ownership and organizational and legal forms of management. Formation of market infrastructure. Reforming of agriculture. Creation of financial and industrial groups. State budget deficit. The crisis of August 17, 1998. Default. The modern stage of economic reforms. Results of social and economic transformations: achievements and difficulties. Prospects for Russia's economic development.


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